Timeline



1222-2002, 780 years Groß Oesingen

In search of the eponym for Oesingen we come in 1222 on Herwicus de (by) Oesing, who appears as a witness at the princely court in Celle. In 1225 Herwicus de Oesing is mentioned again, this time with the addition "militis". This word means that they were servants committed to the military service. As wages for their service they got land as fief, in addition tenth income from villages awarded to them. The Lords of Oesingen had around 1250 the tenth income from Oesingen, Lüsche, Räderloh, Hohnhorst and Klein Hehlen. 1291 is the last mention of Henrius de Oesing.

In 1306, the cathedral provost zu Hildesheim entrusted the brothers Heinrich and Anno von Heimburg with the income of the farms in Oesingen, Lüsche, Räderloh, Hohnhorst and Klein Hehlen. Furthermore, they get the patronage right over the church in Oesingen. Headquarters of the Lords of Heimburg was the Heimburg in the Harz, they had to leave after clashes and came to the Fürstenhof to Celle.
How long the Lords of Heimburg held the feudal rights can not be determined exactly. In 1480 Duke Henry of Brunswick entrusted the Lords of Mahrenholz with the parish of Oesingen and also granted them the right of patronage over the church. The masters of Mahrenholz Oesingen owes the establishment of a "poor school".

The last tithing of Oesingen is the Thies family - even settled in Oesingen - in appearance. On 2.12.1782 the innkeeper Hartwig Thies buys the tithe right of Oesingen from the episcopal church to Hildesheim. The tithe right for Oesingen ends on 30.10.1839 by law. The Thies family was compensated with the 25-fold annual yield. Each farmer had the opportunity to pay the transfer fee at the Landeskreditanstalt Hannover, to be free thereafter.

In 1852 the coupling was carried out in Oesingen, the agricultural vats were merged and assigned to the individual farms. Until then, strip corridors had been worked that were 9-12 m wide. Finally, the "vulgarity" - pastures for sheep and cattle - was divided. So the foundation was laid for profitable farms. The place of residence of the Lords of Oesingen can not be determined exactly. It might have been north of Oesingen, at the end of the Böttelweg, south of the Wiehe am Steinkamp. This is supported by the fact that there was still a solid Kemenade there in 1346 (castle tower, tower, part of a weir system) which Otto von Mahrenholz wants to break off when Duke Otto of Brunswick demands it. The village Oesingen was created around a pond with village green in horseshoe shape. Eight farmsteads and four semi-farms are grouped around this waterhole. On the southern edge, at the open place of the horseshoe, the church is built. Almost all residential buildings, which are built as a two-tiered Lower Saxony hall houses, lie in a north-south direction, with the large door in the south and the living part in the north. Man and animal live under one roof. Due to the Kontributsregister of 1489 - Duke Friedrich von Lüneburg demanded a special tax and had all farmsteads planted - we know the then farm owners. It was not until 1780 that the place was extended, the Brinksitzerstellen emerged (Brink means: on the edge). The lords were concerned that a larger population could not feed. Therefore, a further colonization was not granted.

Oesingen was affected in the past by several major fires. When a fire broke out, it usually had devastating consequences. All houses were covered with straw, and by flying sparks all neighboring buildings were immediately threatened. A big fire disaster befell Oesingen in May 1631. Some boys had played with fire and in the evening almost the whole place was burnt down. The church was spared, but the vicarage burned down and also burned the Oesinger church books.

In Oesingen there were two schools since 1619. On 16.11.1619, Gebhard von Mahrenholz donated a school for 20 children whose parents could not afford the school fees. This school was popularly called "poor school" and was operated until 1866. The second school was the sexton school, which in 1631 became a robbery of the flames. when it was rebuilt, can not be determined exactly. The first known teacher at the sexton school was Moritz Thies, who taught from 1660 to 1670. The most famous teacher at the sexton school was Heinrich Dierks. He taught from 1818 to 1883 - a total of 65 years - in Oesingen and died in 1887 at the age of 93 years. In 1936/37 a new school building was built. The old school classes were abandoned. In the 1950s, the school building was extended. By the end of the 70s, the school existed as elementary or elementary and secondary school. Today, the primary school with the first 4 grades is housed here.

The agriculture around Oesingen was characterized by wide heath flies. Around 1600 there was hardly any forest left in this region, as the Lüneburg salt works had a very large demand for firewood. So it was inevitable that Heidschnucken were held in large numbers, which grazed these vials. The Heidschnucke is a frugal breed of sheep, which mitschafstall the heather is satisfied as food. Each farm maintained a large herd, which was looked after by a shepherd. Around Oesingen were the big stables. Her appearance was particularly noticeable. The roof eaves reached just above the ground.

The Heidschnuckenzucht ended around 1900, import wool made the breed unretabel. Beekeeping with the Heidschnuckenzucht went. Each farm had 60 to 80 bee colonies, the bee fences (Immelaacht), where the peoples were housed, lay outside - in the wide corridor - around Oesingen. On the one hand, the heath-willows made sure that the heath constantly rejuvenated, while the flowering brought rich folk costumes. On the other hand, the animals were driven through the heath during flowering to destroy the spider webs that otherwise would have caught the busy worker bees. The bee colonies were kept in baskets made of bentgrass and willow branches, they had passed with cow manure. Beekeeping also ended beekeeping. At the same time, agriculture was practiced on fields. The main fruit was winter rye. The second fruit was buckwheat (a type of knotweed), which was then the main food of the people living here. The small triangular black grains were dried, freed from their pods and processed into grits and flour. The groats were cooked in milk or water and eaten at any time of the day. The buckwheat flour mixed with rye flour was baked into a special bread. Oats grew only in good locations and were little cultivated. Potatoes were not known yet. Various types of cabbage and turnips were cultivated in the gardens. In modern times, it is hard to imagine that people could live in such a modest way.

In 1815, the road Braunschweig - Gifhorn - Lüneburg (B4) was re-routed and built on the current route with bridge over the black water at Wichelnförth. Previously, the route went over dry locations, they avoided the bogs and created fords through the heathland streams. The route from Gifhorn to Oesingen was via today's Wahrenholzer Straße. Formerly here was a stone dam, mentioned in 1722 at a trial before the Office Gifhorn between Posthalter Thies and the municipality Groß Oesingen. The stone dam was demolished in 1815 and used as foundation stones. The construction of a fixed road from Gifhorn ago and a fixed bridge over the black water had the consequence that the cargo traffic greatly expanded and drove the horse-drawn covered wagons over Oesingen. The innkeeper Thies provided stables for the horses and shelters for the freight wagons. So this offer was used as relaxing and overnight. Even the Oesinger population took advantage of the heavy freight traffic, as it was the only way to learn something from the wide world. Second and third peasants from Oesingen were hired as carters. The freight traffic came to a sudden end, as on August 15, 1904, the railway Celle-Wittingen was put into operation. From now on, the railways took over the freight service at much cheaper and faster conditions. For agriculture, the rail link had a very beneficial effect. Oesingen got a train station - it was 4km north of the village - but was easily accessible by the fixed road (B4). The peasants were now able to transport the limestone marl in large quantities on freight wagons and feed them to the lean heathland soils. Also mineral fertilizer was now delivered by rail and could be used increasingly. Today, the railway line is used only little, the increasing truck traffic made them unprofitable. In the fifties, the road Braunschweig - Lüneburg (B4) was expanded to a wide highway. At peak times 6000 vehicles cross our place daily.

From the turn of the century until the mid-thirties there was hardly any extension of the town. The second world war with its devastating consequences interrupted the development of the place. The consequences of the war were also noticeable in Oesingen. All healthy men up to the age of 40 were drafted into the Wehrmacht and many did not return. The work on the farms was done by foreign workers. In 1943, the first bomb victims had to be taken in, people who had lost their homes in Hanover or Braunschweig. In the first months of 1945, the population of East Prussia, West Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia had to leave their homeland. Many of them also came to our region and asked for admission: In Oesingen everyone was given free living space to accommodate the many people who had lost their homes. The population had almost doubled. After the currency reform in 1948, life slowly returned to normal. The current population has just reached the 2000 and will probably continue to rise.